Given this legal environment, showing good faith attempts to do everything possible to detect and avoid oil spills is essential for any such operator. Although, there are not, as yet, environmental pollution regulations specifically requiring operators of petroleum and gas facilities and transport ships to employ automatic hydrocarbon leak detector systems, permit provision, oversight, and the liability caps of operators are all influenced by the extent precautions are taken to comply with environmental protection and prevent and detect hydrocarbon leaks.
desalination intake protection
As water tables drop, and as their salinity and contaminant concentration rises, many coastal regions are turning towards desalinization as a way to ensure secure water supply for their populations.
In Israel, for example, nearly 50% of the nation's potable water is supplied via state of the art desalination plants. Indeed, it is difficult to imagine Israel maintaining its dense population and relatively high quality of life without these plants.
However, surface water monitoring of the sea water undergoing desalinization is required for water supply desalination intake protection and potable water pollution avoidance. Such surface water monitoring must be automatic, sensitive to rapid changes brought about by wind and current, and persistent over time in order to prevent the entry of an unacceptably high level of contaminants into the tap water of the urban consumer.